Higher primates including chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans are humanlike. chimps use gestures, vocalisations, facial expressions, and body language to communicate.


Rats he observed peeled pine cone scales before eating, a favourite snack. His investigation showed that rats only displayed this behaviour when taught by other rats, indicating that it was cultural.


Birds sing to attract mates and warn predators. Some songbirds, like mockingbirds and catbirds, imitate frog, cat, and car alarm sounds.


Since imitation is a key means to transmit cultural behaviour, it's not surprising that different parrot groups have diverse vocalisations, social behaviour, feeding practises, and intelligence.



Their complex vocalisations may be the source of their advanced culture, earning them the nickname "sea canaries." High-frequency chirps and squeals are used for communication and echolocation.

Mothers and daughters of Japanese macaques protect and feed each other. The macaques groom each other to bond and utilise specific calls to seek or offer grooming.

Japanese Macaques

African elephants include the bush elephant and the forest elephant. Both are social herbivores with grey skin, but their tusks, ears, and skulls differ.

African elephants

Baboons are primates in the genus Papio, one of 23 Old World monkey genera. Wild baboons appear to have a social culture since their social style has been passed down for over two decades.


Marine mammals live in the water and other marine habitats. Seals, whales, manatees, sea otters, and polar bears. They are an informal community united only by their marine food and survival needs.

Marine mammals

Click Here